From the 1877 Field Exercise manual
The following signals will be taught to officers and men, and used whenever such signals are required:
ADVANCE - Wave of the hand or sword.
REINFORCE - Head-dress held above the head, and, if necessary, waved.
HALF-RIGHT or HALF-LEFT - Hand, or sword, held out horizontally in the required direction.
NO ENEMY IS IN SIGHT -The rifle, or sword, being held up perpendicularly with the head-dress on it.
ENEMY IS IN SIGHT - the rifie or sword held up horizontally will signify that an enemy is in sight; if held up steadily in this position it will be understood that only very small bodies, such as vedettes and out-post sentries, are to be seen. If lowered and raised in the same horizontal position once, twice, or more times, the strength of the enemy, as seen by the signaller, will be denoted.
The private is a member of the Middlesex Regiment and is wearing the post 1881 frock. He has a Martini Henry rifle and 1882 valis equipment worn with haversack and waterbottle. One good conduct badge shows he has served over two years but has not yet achieved six years good conduct to be awarded a second badge.
The photographs of the drummers illustrate the method of carrying the drum when not in use. The arms are put through the drag ropes which are usually seen hanging below the drum, they are twisted together at the front to take up the slack and the drumsticks are pushed through to stop them coming undone. The ticken bag for the drum can be seen rolled up and strapped to one of the rope tensioners.